Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an important health issue that will ultimately require routine dialysis or renal transplantation. Studies on dietary intervention comparing animal and or vegetable protein have not yet validated a suitable protein diet for patients on dialysis. We aimed to compare renal outcomes of patients on dialysis after animal- and vegetable-based protein dietary interventions to be able to designate an appropriate protein diet for patients on dialysis.
Methods: In this randomized clinical trial, patients referred to Nemazee Hospital dialysis center, in Shiraz Iran, were randomly divided into two groups of 30 patients: Group A received diet containing 60% animal protein and 40% vegetable protein and group B, 60% vegetable protein and 40% animal protein. Serum level of blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, serum albumin and total protein were measured. Patients’ weight and blood pressure were also recorded before and after dialysis and compared with values after 40 days of dietary interventions.
Results: In group A, creatinine and serum total protein significantly reduced after dietary intervention (P=0.03, and 0.001, respectively). Mediating the effect of dialysis, there was a significant increase in serum total protein (P=0.002), and a significant decrease in serum creatinine (P=0.05) level in group A, while no significant changes were seen in the serum concentration of BUN (P>0.05).
Conclusion: 40-day animal- or vegetable-based protein dietary intervention could not significantly change the renal outcome, blood pressure, or body weight of patients with CKD undergoing hemodialysis.