The Effects of Vitamin K Supplementation in Vascular Calcification: A Systematic Review

Document Type: Review Article

Authors

1 Student Research Committee, School of Nutrition and Food Sciences, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran

2 Nutrition and Food Sciences Research Center, School of Nutrition and Food Sciences, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran

3 Nutrition Research Center, Department of Clinical Nutrition, School of Nutrition and Food Sciences, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran

4 SUMS Employees Health Cohort Study, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran

Abstract

Vascular calcification is a predictor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, which can be evaluated by pulse wave velocity (PWV) and Coronary Artery Calcification score (CAC. s). Vitamin K-dependent matrix Gla protein (MGP) is an important inhibitor of calcification. The aim of this systematic review was to assess the effect of high-dose vitamin k supplementation on vascular calcification. A literature search in PubMed was undertaken with using the keywords “vitamin k1 supplementation” OR “phylomenadion supplementation” OR “vitamin k2 supplementation” OR “menaquinone supplementation” OR “vitamin k3 supplementation” OR “menadion supplementation” and “calcification”, and then qualified articles were used. Vitamin K1 supplement was not associated with dephosphorylated uncarboxylated MGP (dp-uc MGP) level and PWV level. However, it was associated with less CAC progression. Vitim K2 supplement was correlated inversely with dp-uc MGP level and decrease in PWV but no difference CAC progression. Based on results that was obtained from this systematic review, we expressed conclusively that taking vitamin K supplements especially vitamin K2 can decrease inactive MGP levels and slow the progression of CAC in healthy older adults with pre-existing CAC and improve arterial stiffness.

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