Document Type: Review Article
Student Research Committee, School of Nutrition and Food Sciences, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran
Nutrition Research Center, Department of Clinical Nutrition, School of Nutrition and Food Sciences, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran
The global burden of traumatic brain injury (TBI) is increasing, suggesting that it will become the third leading cause of death and disability worldwide by the year 2020. The brain is known to be the functional regulator for all the metabolic activities inside the body and TBI patients that mostly have a complex metabolic alteration. There are consistent data showing that increased metabolic rate with rapid protein breakdown is common in patients with moderate and severe TBI. The aim of the current scoping review was to summarize the metabolic profile and nutritional status of TBI patients, and to investigate the influence of nutrition therapy on clinical outcomes. A review of the literature published between 2012 and 2017 was conducted. Three databases were searched including PubMed, Google Scholar, and clinical key. Hypermetabolism and malnutrition were known as physiologic consequences of TBI. Pathophysiological mechanisms of malnutrition were multifactorial and related to inadequate nutrient ingestion, abnormalities in the energy expenditure, changes in eating behavior, gastrointestinal disorders, and also side effects of drugs administered. The goal of nutrition therapy is to oppose the hypercatabolism and hypermetabolism. Initiation of nutrition support should begin as soon as the patient has been stabilized and resuscitated.