Document Type : Original Article
Master Program of Nutrition Sciences, School of Posgraduate, Univeristas Sebelas Maret, Surakarta, Indonesia
Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Sebelas Maret , Surakarta, Indonesia
Department of Dental and Oral Disease Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Sebelas Maret, Surakarta, Indonesia
Background: One of the concurrent illnesses linked with COVID-19 is Diabetes mellitus (DM). DM patients must follow a diet plan and engage in physical exercise to reduce illness complications and enhance immunity during COVID-19 pandemic. This study aimed to determine relationship of carbohydrates, vitamin D, zinc consumption and physical
activity with fasting blood glucose levels in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) patients during COVID-19 pandemic.
Methods: a cross-sectional study was undertaken in three health centers of Bantul Health Center, Bambanglipuro Health Center, and Pajangan Health Center. Members of the Chronic Disease Management Program (PROLANIS) were among the responders with T2DM. Semi Quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire (SQ-FFQ) and Short Form International Physical Activity Questionnaire (SF-IPAQ) were completed to measure the degree of physical activity to figure out eating habits. Fasting blood sugar and Glucose Oxidase-Peroxidase Aminoantipyrine blood samples (GOD-PAP) were also determined.
Results: The consumption of carbohydrates and physical activity were both linked to fasting blood glucose levels (p<0.05). T2DM patients with low vitamin D consumption habits had 1.3 times greater risk of experiencing abnormal fasting blood glucose level (OR=1.292). Carbohydrate consumption, vitamin D, zinc, and physical activity had contribution as much as 16.2% to affect the occurrence of abnormal fasting blood glucose level.
Conclusion: As in T2DM patients with low vitamin D consumption habits, a higher risk of experiencing abnormal fasting blood glucose level was noticed. So health planning issues are needed for vitamin D consumption in T2DM patients during COVID-19 pandemic.