Document Type : Original Article
Department of Biological Science, Higher Teachers’ Training College, University of Yaounde 1, Yaounde-Cameroon
Laboratory of Nutrition and Nutritional Biochemistry, Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Yaounde 1, Yaounde- Cameroon
Laboratory of Nutrition and Nutritional Biochemistry, Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Yaounde 1, Yaounde-Cameroon
Centre for Food, Food Security and Nutrition Research, Institute of Medical Research and Medicinal Plant Studies, MINRESI, Yaounde, Cameroon
Department of Life and Earth Science, Higher Teachers’ Training College, University of Maroua, Maroua, Cameroon
Higher Teachers’ Training School for Technical Education, University of Douala, Douala, Cameroon
Background: The nutritional transition observed worldwilde is linked to cardiovascular diseases. This study assessed the level of nutritional transition and its implications in the occurrence of cardiometabolic risk factors among populations living in the Far North Region of Cameroon.
Methods: A cross-sectional, descriptive, and analytical study was conducted during November 2020 recruiting 350 Cameroonians of both genders aged 18 years and above in urban (Maroua), semi-urban (Kaélé) and rural (Midjivin) areas. Demographic, socioeconomic status and food habits were assessed through an interview. Anthropometric (weight, height, body mass index: BMI) and blood pressure were measured. A fasting blood sample was collected for lipid profile.
Results: Mean age was higher in Kaele (44.99±16.55 years) and Midjivin (47.23±18.21 years). Urban residents of Maroua (23.38±4.80 kg/m2) and Kaele (23.13±5.01 kg/m2) had the highest BMI. Rural dwellers exhibited elevated cholesterol (220.30±70.40 mg/dL) and triglycerides (120.52±62.64 mg/dL). Diastolic blood pressure and heart rate increased significantly with urbanization. Low fruit and vegetable consumption, high alcohol intake, and low physical activity were observed in all three areas. An increased frequency of abdominal obesity, high blood pressure, hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia were noticed in all participants. Midjivin inhabitants showed behavioral changes closer to those in Maroua, while those of Kaele had a slower rate of nutritional
Conclusion: People living in rural, semi-urban, and urban areas have stated the nutrition transition process in this part of the country. Thus nutritional education needs to be reinforced for a better prevention of nutritional-related morbitidies and mortalities drived by urbanization.