Document Type : Original Article
Department of Clinical Nutrition, School of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
Nutrition Research Center, School of Nutrition and Food Sciences, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran
Department of Clinical Nutrition, School of Nutrition and Food Science, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran
Department of Community Nutrition, School of Nutrition and Food Science, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran
Students’ Research Committee, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran
Background: To quantify carbohydrates, various indicators such as glycemic load (GL) and glycemic index (GI) were introduced. In order to address the effect of dietary carbohydrate content on lipid profile, we investigated the relationship between dietary GI and GL with lipid profile in adults living in Shiraz, Iran.
Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 236 participants aged between 20 and 50 years were selected using cluster random sampling in Shiraz, Iran. For assessing the food intake, a 168-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was utilized. Dietary GI and GL were calculated based on food items intake.
Results: Higher GI was associated with increased odds ratio (OR) of lowdensity lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C, OR: 2.51; p-trend=0.008), nonhigh-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL, OR: 2.34; p-trend=0.01) and LDL to HDL ratio (OR: 2.13; p-trend=0.02) in crude model. In adjusted model, direct association was observed between GI and total cholesterol (TC, OR: 2.40; p-trend=0.01), LDL-C (OR: 2.50; p-trend=0.01) and non-HDL-C (OR: 2.48; p-trend=0.01). Association was noted between higher GL with TC (OR: 2.50; p-trend=0.01), LDL-C (OR: 2.22; p-trend=0.02), non-HDL-C (OR: 2.49; p-trend=0.005) and LDL-C to HDL-C ratio (OR: 2.29; p-trend=0.01) in crude model. After adjusting for potential cofounder, association remained for TC (OR: 3.97; p-trend=0.01), LDL-C (OR: 4.39; p-trend=0.005) and non-HDL-C (OR: 3.72; p-trend=0.008).
Conclusion: Dietary GI and GL may have an association with higher odds of abnormal lipid profile. It seems that a diet with a low GI and GL (which full of whole grains, fruits, vegetables, nuts and legumes) can play an effective role in favorable lipid profile.
Shiva Faghih (Google Scholar)