Nutritional Quality and Dietary Intake in Children and Adolescents with Celiac Disease

Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Clinical Nutrition, School of Nutrition and Food Sciences, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran

2 Gastroenterohepatology Research Center, Nemazee Teaching Hospital, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. Shiraz, Iran

3 Student Research Committee, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran


Background: Gluten-free diet (GFD) may influence the nutritional quality and adequacy of celiac disease (CD) patients. The aim of the present study was to evaluate quality of diet and nutrients intake of children and adolescents with CD and compare those with healthy subjects.
Methods: This cross-sectional study included 50 patients with CD (18 boys and 32 girls; mean age: 11.5 y; range:7-18 y) and 50 healthy children and adolescent matched by age, sex and body mass index (BMI). The subjects’ height, weight, body composition evaluated by bioelectrical impedance analysis were measured and a food frequency questionnaire
(FFQ) was administered. Diet quality was assessed using modified healthy eating index (mHEI) and visual analog scale (VAS) was used to evaluate appetite.
Results: The weight, height, fat-free mass (FFM) and body fat percentage (BF%) were not different between groups. Intake of energy, macro-nutrients and some micro-nutrients like vitamin A, vitamin D, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B12 and zinc was significantly lower in celiac patients. The scores of mHEI were not different between case and control groups
(55.24±8.8 vs. 55.84±8.6; p=0.819). VAS results revealed no difference in sensation of hunger, satiety, fullness and prospective food consumption between the groups; but there was a higher desire to eat in celiac patients.
Conclusion: Although intake of macronutrients and a few micronutrients were more than recommended dietary allowance (RDA) in both groups; but diet quality of CD patients is needed to be improved.