The Effect of Micronutrients on COVID-19 Disease: A Review of Available Evidences

Document Type : Review Article


1 Student Research Committee, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran

2 Nutrition Research Center, School of Nutrition and Food Sciences, Shiraz University of Medical Science, Shiraz, Iran

3 Gastroenterohepatology Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran

4 Center for Cohort Study of SUMS Employees’ Health, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran


Patients with coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) are likely to experience a wide range of mild to severe symptoms that can lead to hospitalization or even death. Infection and poor nutrition are potentially interdependent. The immune response to infection is associated with increased demand for nutrients. Also, micronutrient supplementation can improve the body’s defence against infections. This review of the literature was conducted to ascertain published studies on the relationship between micronutrients and the risk of COVID-19 or their effect on the recovery process of hospitalized COVID-19 patients. The findings from these papers show that patients who were deficient in vitamin D, vitamin C, selenium and
zinc were likely to display more severe forms of COVID-19. Vitamin D seems to have the most significant impact when consumed in equal bolus before the development of COVID-19. Intravenous injection of vitamin C in COVID-19 patients admitted to the ICU at a dose of 24 gram in 24 hours was significantly associated with improved COVID-19. Selenium intake with vitamin D and zinc reported in COVID-19 patients with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis infection positively affected the recovery process. More studies are required on group B vitamins due to their proven immune-boosting effect. Finally, there is a need to conduct clinical trials with higher power and subsequent meta-analysis studies in order to be able to make a definite statement about the effectiveness of micronutrients on the COVID-19 progression.